Mapping Cellular Polarity Networks Using Mass Spectrometry-based Strategies.
Cell polarity is a vital biological process involved in the building, maintenance and normal functioning of tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates. Unsurprisingly, molecular defects affecting polarity organization and functions have a strong impact on tissue homeostasis, embryonic development and adult life, and may directly or indirectly lead to diseases. Genetic studies have demonstrated the causative effect of several polarity genes in diseases; however, much remains to be clarified before a comprehensive view of the molecular organization and regulation of the protein networks associated with polarity proteins is obtained. This challenge can be approached head-on using proteomics to identify protein complexes involved in cell polarity and their modifications in a spatio-temporal manner. We review the fundamental basics of mass spectrometry techniques and provide an in-depth analysis of how mass spectrometry has been instrumental in understanding the complex and dynamic nature of some cell polarity networks at the tissue (apico-basal and planar cell polarities) and cellular (cell migration, ciliogenesis) levels, with the fine dissection of the interconnections between prototypic cell polarity proteins and signal transduction cascades in normal and pathological situations. This review primarily focuses on epithelial structures which are the fundamental building blocks for most metazoan tissues, used as the archetypal model to study cellular polarity. This field offers broad perspectives thanks to the ever-increasing sensitivity of mass spectrometry and its use in combination with recently developed molecular strategies able to probe in situ proteomic networks.Read the article