CD95/Fas and metastatic disease: What does not kill you makes you stronger.
CD95 (also known as Fas) is the prototype of death receptors; however, evidence suggests that this receptor mainly implements non-apoptotic signaling pathways such as NF-κB, MAPK, and PI3K that are involved in cell migration, differentiation, survival, and cytokine secretion. At least two different forms of CD95 L exist. The multi-aggregated transmembrane ligand (m-CD95 L) is cleaved by metalloproteases to release a homotrimeric soluble ligand (s-CD95 L). Unlike m-CD95 L, the interaction between s-CD95 L and its receptor CD95 fails to trigger apoptosis, but instead promotes calcium-dependent cell migration, which contributes to the accumulation of inflammatory Th17 cells in damaged organs of lupus patients and favors cancer cell invasiveness. Novel inhibitors targeting the pro-inflammatory roles of CD95/CD95 L may provide attractive therapeutic options for patients with chronic inflammatory disorders or cancer. This review discusses the roles of the CD95/CD95 L pair in cell migration and metastasis.Read the article