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Oct 2013 Blood

BCOR and BCORL1 mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes and related disorders.


Damm F, Chesnais V, Nagata Y, Yoshida K, Scourzic L, Okuno Y, Itzykson R, Sanada M, Shiraishi Y, Gelsi-Boyer V, Renneville A, Miyano S, Mori H, Shih LY, Park S, Dreyfus F, Guerci-Bresler A, Solary E, Rose C, Cheze S, Prébet T, Vey N, Legentil M, Duffourd Y, de Botton S, Preudhomme C, Birnbaum D, Ogawa S, Fontenay M, Kosmider O


Patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) that rapidly progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain a challenge in disease management. Using whole-exome sequencing of an MDS patient, we identified a somatic mutation in the BCOR gene also mutated in AML. Sequencing of BCOR and related BCORL1 genes in a cohort of 354 MDS patients identified 4.2% and 0.8% of mutations respectively. BCOR mutations were associated with RUNX1 (P = .002) and DNMT3A mutations (P = .015). BCOR is also mutated in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia patients (7.4%) and BCORL1 in AML patients with myelodysplasia-related changes (9.1%). Using deep sequencing, we show that BCOR mutations arise after mutations affecting genes involved in splicing machinery or epigenetic regulation. In univariate analysis, BCOR mutations were associated with poor prognosis in MDS (overall survival [OS]: P = .013; cumulative incidence of AML transformation: P = .005). Multivariate analysis including age, International Prognostic Scoring System, transfusion dependency, and mutational status confirmed a significant inferior OS to patients with a BCOR mutation (hazard ratio, 3.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.1; P = .008). These data suggest that BCOR mutations define the clinical course rather than disease initiation. Despite infrequent mutations, BCOR analyses should be considered in risk stratification.

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