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Sep Jul 2015 Molecular & cellular oncology

Cutting the brakes on hematopoietic regeneration by blocking TGFβ to limit chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression.


Brenet F, Scandura JM


Hematopoietic stressors such as infection, bleeding, or toxic injury trigger a hematopoietic adaptation that sacrifices hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) quiescence to meet an urgent need for new blood cell production. Once the hematopoietic demands are adequately met, homeostasis must be restored. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling is a central mediator mandating the return of HSPCs to quiescence after stress. Blockade of TGFβ signaling after hematopoietic stress delays the return of cycling HSPCs to quiescence and in so doing promotes hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and accelerates hematopoietic reconstitution. These findings open the door to new therapeutics that modulate the hematopoietic adaptation to stress. In this review, we will discuss the complex context-dependent activities of TGFβ in hematopoiesis and the potential benefits and limitations of using TGFβ pathway inhibitors to promote multilineage hematopoietic reconstitution after myelosuppressive chemotherapy.

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