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Apr 2021 Developmental cell

Formation of polarized contractile interfaces by self-organized Toll-8/Cirl GPCR asymmetry.


Lavalou J, Mao Q, Harmansa S, Kerridge S, Lellouch AC, Philippe JM, Audebert S, Camoin L, Lecuit T


Interfaces between cells with distinct genetic identities elicit signals to organize local cell behaviors driving tissue morphogenesis. The Drosophila embryonic axis extension requires planar polarized enrichment of myosin-II powering oriented cell intercalations. Myosin-II levels are quantitatively controlled by GPCR signaling, whereas myosin-II polarity requires patterned expression of several Toll receptors. How Toll receptors polarize myosin-II and how this involves GPCRs remain unknown. Here, we report that differential expression of a single Toll receptor, Toll-8, polarizes myosin-II through binding to the adhesion GPCR Cirl/latrophilin. Asymmetric expression of Cirl is sufficient to enrich myosin-II, and Cirl localization is asymmetric at Toll-8 expression boundaries. Exploring the process dynamically, we reveal that Toll-8 and Cirl exhibit mutually dependent planar polarity in response to quantitative differences in Toll-8 expression between neighboring cells. Collectively, we propose that the cell surface protein complex Toll-8/Cirl self-organizes to generate local asymmetric interfaces essential for planar polarization of contractility.

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