Interleukin-22-deficiency and microbiota contribute to the exacerbation of Toxoplasma gondii-induced intestinal inflammation.
Couturier-Maillard A, Froux N, Piotet-Morin J, Michaudel C, Brault L, Le Bérichel J, Sénéchal A, Robinet P, Chenuet P, Jejou S, Dumoutier L, Renauld JC, Iovanna J, Huber S, Chamaillard M, Quesniaux V, Sokol H, Ryffel B
Upon oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii cysts (76 K strain) tachyzoites are released into the intestinal lumen and cross the epithelial barrier causing damage and acute intestinal inflammation in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Here we investigated the role of microbiota and IL-22 in T.gondii-induced small intestinal inflammation. Oral T.gondii infection in B6 mice causes inflammation with IFNγ and IL-22 production. In IL-22-deficient mice, T.gondii infection augments the Th1 driven inflammation. Deficiency in either IL-22bp, the soluble IL-22 receptor or Reg3γ, an IL-22-dependent antimicrobial lectin/peptide, did not reduce inflammation. Under germ-free conditions, T.gondii-induced inflammation was reduced in correlation with parasite load. But intestinal inflammation is still present in germ-free mice, at low level, in the lamina propria, independently of IL-22 expression. Exacerbated intestinal inflammation driven by absence of IL-22 appears to be independent of IL-22 deficiency associated-dysbiosis as similar inflammation was observed after fecal transplantation of IL-22 or WT microbiota to germ-free-WT mice. Our results suggest cooperation between parasite and intestinal microbiota in small intestine inflammation development and endogenous IL-22 seems to exert a protective role independently of its effect on the microbiota. In conclusion, IL-22 participates in T.gondii induced acute small intestinal inflammation independently of microbiota and Reg3γ.Lire l‘article