Feb 2013 Blood

Mast cell leukemia.

Auteurs

Georgin-Lavialle S, Lhermitte L, Dubreuil P, Chandesris MO, Hermine O, Damaj G

Résumé

Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is a very rare form of aggressive systemic mastocytosis accounting for < 1% of all mastocytosis. It may appear de novo or secondary to previous mastocytosis and shares more clinicopathologic aspects with systemic mastocytosis than with acute myeloid leukemia. Symptoms of mast cell activation-involvement of the liver, spleen, peritoneum, bones, and marrow-are frequent. Diagnosis is based on the presence of ≥ 20% atypical mast cells in the marrow or ≥ 10% in the blood; however, an aleukemic variant is frequently encountered in which the number of circulating mast cells is < 10%. The common phenotypic features of pathologic mast cells encountered in most forms of mastocytosis are unreliable in MCL. Unexpectedly, non-KIT D816V mutations are frequent and therefore, complete gene sequencing is necessary. Therapy usually fails and the median survival time is < 6 months. The role of combination therapies and bone marrow transplantation needs further investigation.

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