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May 2015 Methods (San Diego, Calif.)

Methodological aspects of the molecular and histological study of prostate cancer: focus on PTEN.


Ugalde-Olano A, Egia A, Fernández-Ruiz S, Loizaga-Iriarte A, Zuñiga-García P, Royo F, Lacasa-Viscasillas I, Castro E, Cortazar AR, Zabala-Letona A, Martín-Martín N, Arruabarrena-Aristorena A, Torrano-Moya V, Valcárcel-Jiménez L, Sánchez-Mosquera P, Caro-Maldonado A, González-Tampan J, Cachi-Fuentes G, Bilbao E, Fernández S, Arrieta E, Zorroza K, Castillo-Martín M, Serra V, Salazar E, Macías-Cámara N, Tabernero J, Baselga J, Cordón-Cardo C, Aransay AM, Villar AD, Iovanna JL, Falcón-Pérez JM, Unda M, Bilbao R, Carracedo A


Prostate cancer is among the most frequent cancers in men, and despite its high rate of cure, the high number of cases results in an elevated mortality worldwide. Importantly, prostate cancer incidence is dramatically increasing in western societies in the past decades, suggesting that this type of tumor is exquisitely sensitive to lifestyle changes. Prostate cancer frequently exhibits alterations in the PTEN gene (inactivating mutations or gene deletions) or at the protein level (reduced protein expression or altered sub-cellular compartmentalization). The relevance of PTEN in this type of cancer is further supported by the fact that the sole deletion of PTEN in the murine prostate epithelium recapitulates many of the features of the human disease. In order to study the molecular alterations in prostate cancer, we need to overcome the methodological challenges that this tissue imposes. In this review we present protocols and methods, using PTEN as proof of concept, to study different molecular characteristics of prostate cancer.

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