Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) glycosite mutation perturbs secretion but not Golgi localization.
Horowitz B, Javitt G, Ilani T, Gat Y, Morgenstern D, Bard FA, Fass D
Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) catalyzes the formation of disulfide bonds in protein substrates. Unlike other enzymes with related activities, which are commonly found in the endoplasmic reticulum, QSOX1 is localized to the Golgi apparatus or secreted. QSOX1 is upregulated in quiescent fibroblast cells and secreted into the extracellular environment, where it contributes to extracellular matrix assembly. QSOX1 is also upregulated in adenocarcinomas, though the extent to which it is secreted in this context is currently unknown. To achieve a better understanding of factors that dictate QSOX1 localization and function, we aimed to determine how post-translational modifications affect QSOX1 trafficking and activity. We found a highly conserved N-linked glycosylation site to be required for QSOX1 secretion from fibroblasts and other cell types. Notably, QSOX1 lacking a glycan at this site arrives at the Golgi, suggesting that it passes endoplasmic reticulum quality control but is not further transported to the cell surface for secretion. The QSOX1 transmembrane segment is dispensable for Golgi localization and secretion, as fully luminal and transmembrane variants displayed the same trafficking behavior. This study provides a key example of the effect of glycosylation on Golgi exit and contributes to an understanding of late secretory sorting and quality control.Lire l‘article