Turning cold tumors into hot tumors: harnessing the potential of tumor immunity using nanoparticles.
Rodallec A, Sicard G, Fanciullino R, Benzekry S, Lacarelle B, Milano G, Ciccolini J
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have considerably changed the landscape of oncology. However apart from world-acclaimed success stories limited to melanoma and lung cancer, many solid tumors failed to respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors due to limited immunogenicity, unfavorable tumor micro-environments (TME), lack of infiltrating T lymphocytes or increases in Tregs. Areas covered: Combinatorial strategies are foreseen as the future of immunotherapy and using cytotoxics or modulating agents is expected to boost the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors. In this respect, nanoparticles displaying unique pharmacokinetic features such as tumor targeting properties, optimal payload delivery and long-lasting interferences with TME, are promising candidates for such combinations. This review covers the basis, expectancies, limits and pitfalls of future combination between nanoparticles and immune check point inhibitors. Expert opinion: Nanoparticles allow optimal delivery of variety of payloads in tumors while sparing healthy tissue, thus triggering immunogenic cell death. Depleting tumor stroma could further help immune cells and monoclonal antibodies to better circulate in the TME, plus immune-modulating properties of the charged cytotoxics. Finally, nanoparticles themselves present immunogenicity and antigenicity likely to boost immune response at the tumor level.Lire l‘article