Metabolome profiling by HRMAS NMR spectroscopy of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas detects SDH deficiency: clinical and pathophysiological implications.
Succinate dehydrogenase gene (SDHx) mutations increase susceptibility to develop pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PHEOs/PGLs). In the present study, we evaluate the performance and clinical applications of (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based global metabolomic profiling in a large series of PHEOs/PGLs of different genetic backgrounds. Eighty-seven PHEOs/PGLs (48 sporadic/23 SDHx/7 von Hippel-Lindau/5 REarranged during Transfection/3 neurofibromatosis type 1/1 hypoxia-inducible factor 2α), one SDHD variant of unknown significance, and two Carney triad (CTr)-related tumors were analyzed by HRMAS-NMR spectroscopy. Compared to sporadic, SDHx-related PHEOs/PGLs exhibit a specific metabolic signature characterized by increased levels of succinate (P < .0001), methionine (P = .002), glutamine (P = .002), and myoinositol (P < .0007) and decreased levels of glutamate (P < .0007), regardless of their location and catecholamine levels. Uniquely, ATP/ascorbate/glutathione was found to be associated with the secretory phenotype of PHEOs/PGLs, regardless of their genotype (P < .0007). The use of succinate as a single screening test retained excellent accuracy in distinguishing SDHx versus non-SDHx-related tumors (sensitivity/specificity: 100/100%). Moreover, the quantification of succinate could be considered a diagnostic alternative for assessing SDHx-related mutations of unknown pathogenicity. We were also able, for the first time, to uncover an SDH-like pattern in the two CTr-related PGLs. The present study demonstrates that HRMAS-NMR provides important information for SDHx-related PHEO/PGL characterization. Besides the high succinate-low glutamate hallmark, SDHx tumors also exhibit high values of methionine, a finding consistent with the hypermethylation pattern of these tumors. We also found important levels of glutamine, suggesting that glutamine metabolism might be involved in the pathogenesis of SDHx-related PHEOs/PGLs.Lire l‘article